Archive

Posts Tagged ‘site-built homes’

Skyline Champion Corp – Manufactured Homes, Modular Housing – Outlook, Opportunities, & Obstacles

July 31st, 2018 Comments off
SkylineChampionLogoPhotoIPManufacturedModularParkModelHomeDailyBusinessNewsMHProNewsThirdPartyMHProNewsLogo550-315

Slide from IR presentation. as are others below. Text graphics by MHProNews. While a design like the home shown above could, in theory, be done as a HUD Code manufactured home, the odds are that this was built as a state-code modular home. 

With almost 2 months since the combination of Skyline and Champion – producers of manufactured home, modular housing, and other forms of factory-crafted construction – has occurred, it’s an apt time to take a snapshot of the new #2 in HUD Code home industry.

 

As with several other publicly-traded operations previously analyzed on the Daily Business News on MHProNews, this first look will begin with their own internally crafted information.

skylinechapmpionSKYlogoSnapshotManufacturedModularParkModelHomeIndustryDailyBusinessNewsMHproNews598

Slide from IR presentation. as are others herein.

It is worth noting again that often useful industry insights are gained – not only for investors, but for others in the manufactured home industry – by reviewing such IR (investor relations) presentations.

SkylineChampionIRPresenationJune2018USCanadaFootprinttopTenStatesFastestGrowingMarketsDailyBusinessnewsMHproNews

The top ten states, and the fastest growing states, are shown at the right. Note that some of the fast growing states had such low shipment levels that it could skew the impression. See related reports, linked below, for more details.

These documents – properly understood – can also be useful for advocates, lenders, researchers, and public officials.

SkylineChampionSKYIRImprovingFinancingOptionsManufacturedHomeDailyBusinessNewsMHProNews598

Finance – and access to capital – is more available, especially since the Trump Tax Cut, and deregulatory changes. Those have indeed made a positive difference for the industry. That said, so far, the Duty To Serve (DTS) manufactured housing is still toe in the water, and is being protested by MHARR as insufficient and strayed from the purpose of the law established in 2008 by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act. Rephrased, there are more improvements in financing options possible. is iThe top ten states, and the fastest growing states, are shown at the right. Note that some of the fast growing states had such low shipment levels that it could skew the impression. See related reports, linked below, for more details.

Typical of such reports are mostly accurate industry information.

#2ManufacturedHousingPositionMarketShareTop8DailyBusinessNewsMHProNews

One of the driving forces that are growing in the next tier after Clayton, Skyline Champion and Cavco is Legacy Housing. They’ve grown rapidly in Texas, and are now doing the same in GA. Part of their success? Its financing, as well as other price point and specialized products.

The Daily Business News says “mostly,” as there are still times – for example, Cavco’s IR presentation – that cites information that is contradicted by other sources.

SkylineChampionSKYirStructuralAdvantagesOpportunitiesManufacturedHomesVsSiteBuiltDailyBusinessNewsMHproNews

This is arguably one of the best slides in this report, as it captures several key facts about HUD Code manufactured homes. To learn more about third party research on manufactured homes, see the recent NAR report by Scholastica ‘Gay’ Cororaton, linked here or below.

“Market for Manufactured Homes,” Scholastica “Gay” Cororaton, for Realtor University, Analysis and the Manufactured Housing Institute (MHI)

A specific example is the manufactured home community count, which matters very much to those in the community segment of the industry.

SkylineChampionirIncreasingInvestmentsByManufacturedHomeCommunitiesDailyBusinessNewsMHProNews

Commentary and analysis by MHProNews.  The community count issue is one that public companies can address without MHI help, but they would be wise to get MHI to correct their apparent error, see what their own members say, in the report below..

Frank Rolfe, Dave Reynolds, George Allen, Manufactured Home Community Controversy Continues

Hundreds of New Manufactured Home Communities Opened, But How Many Have Closed? Industry Research Result$

MHProNews is a strong believer – as are others who are forward-looking in MHVille – that accuracy in data matters.  Any given company, as well as the industry at large, benefit from accurate data and facts.

SkylineChampionIRDemograpicTrendsCostComparisionsDailyBusinessNewsMHProNews

This is another useful presentation slide, gathering some data which reflects why manufactured housing could be poised for serious growth.

 

Disclaimers

As with any source cited, or any report done by MHProNews or MHLivingNews, the relaying of information or an analysis should not be construed as an endorsement, nor its opposite.

Facts, insights and information are being conveyed for the sake of a deeper, richer understanding of the manufactured home industry in specific, or factory-built housing in general.

LegacyManufacturedHousing-LiquidationEvent-HurricanOverRun-image500x335

Click the above to learn more or register for the event, which is unrelated to the article.

We’d also note that when we see an inaccuracy and mention it – again, using the example of the community count – that doesn’t mean that there may not be others.

We hold no stocks, nor any other positions for or against, this operation, which operates under Skyline Champion Corp. (NYSE:SKY), and is covered as part of our evening/nightly market snapshot.  Last night’s closing numbers are found at this link.

MostMenAppearnNeverConsideredWhatHouseIsNeedlesslyPoorAllTheirLivesHenryDavidThoreauManufacturedHomeLivingNews

For newcomers to the website not familiar with modern manufactured homes, learn more by clicking the image above or the link here.  The opportunities are spelled out in reverse, in the report, below.

New Home Sales Fall to 8-Month Low in June, Data Signals Trouble – or Opportunity in Disguise for Manufactured Housing?

 

Market Snapshot

Given the above disclaimers, the presentation by Skyline Champion (SKY) is one of the better ones for insights provided by publicly traded firms in manufactured housing.

SkylineChampionIRPlantsRetailOperationsIdlePlantsDailyBusinessNewsMHProNews

The chart above reflects an interesting factoid, that Skyline Champion has 7 idle plants, which rephrased, means they could in theory ramp up more quickly than some others.

While it is graphically rich, it could benefit from more photos that exemplify the full range of housing options offered.

Producers of HUD Code manufactured homes or modular housing often show the fanciest and biggest models they can.  That makes sense for showcasing potential and for giving a good first impression.

EricBelksyManufacturedHousingIndustryManufacuredHomeManufacturedHousingInstituteResearchDataAffordbleHousingMHProNewsDailyBuisnessNews575

The facts are so powerful in favor of manufactured housing, some ask, why isn’t the industry doing much better?  The answer is found in part in Smoking Gun 3.

But such reports – Skyline Champion or others – should arguably show more entry level housing too.  Why?  There are more low-to-mid range potential buyers than those at the top that may want a modular waterfront getaway.

“Why Advocates Need to Rethink Manufactured Home Quality,” Harvard, GSE, Genz, “High Satisfaction”

IR presentations have certain limitations.  Not being specialized attorneys in public companies, we claim no expertise on those legal nuances in an IR presentation.  That said, when Skyline Champion says that there is significant upside for their business, or the industry in general – with proper management – consider that an understatement.

Why?

Several tech giants have spawned or inspired leaders who have launched factory-built housing enterprises.

LawrenceYunNARShort8.3MillionHousingUnitsRisingRentsHousingPricesCuredOnlyByMoreBuilding

Collage by MHProNews.

MHProNews recently noted that Japanese based SoftBank has bet big on Menlo Park, CA based Katerra.

Billion Dollar Startup Modular Builder, Using Robotics, Could Soon Rival Clayton Homes’ Total Sales

They are only the latest higher profile move by a factory-builder to address the affordable housing crisis.

  • With approximately 8.3 million housing unit shortage,
  • and with numerous voices inside and beyond the factory-built housing world having said for years that the construction gap can’t be closed by site builders alone,
  • the upside for factory home building should be obvious.

CompareMobileHomeTrailersPastManufacturedHomesSaferMoreDurableQuoteScholasticiaGayCororationPhotoSmallPercentageDamagedDuringHUrricanesMHProNews

This snapshot has selected those slides which in our view reflects the most interesting items to the greatest number of readers. A comparison between quality concerns of manufactured homes vs. conventional housing is launched in the related report, linked below.

Investors, Heartbroken Home Owners, Site Building Giant DR Horton, and Manufactured Housing

To see the entire SKY presentation, you can click the download linked here. “We Provide, You Decide.” © ##(News, analysis, and commentary.)

(Third-party images and content are provided under fair use guidelines.) See Related Reports, linked further below.

ConfidentialNewsTipsOKTipsIreportMHNews@MHMSM-comGraphic

To report a news tip, click the image above or send an email to iReportMHNewsTips@mhmsm.com – To help us spot your message in our volume of email, please put the words NEWS TIP in the subject line.

1) To sign up in seconds for our MH Industry leading emailed news updates, click here.EmailedMHProNewsHeadlineNewsDailyBusinessNews
2) To provide a News Tips and/or Commentary, click the link to the left. Please note if comments are on-or-off the record, thank you.

3) Marketing, Web, Video, Consulting, Recruiting and Training Resources

SoheylaKovachDailyBusinessNewsMHProNewsMHLivingNewsSubmitted by Soheyla Kovach to the Daily Business News for MHProNews.com. Soheyla is a managing member of LifeStyle Factory Homes, LLC, the parent company to MHProNews, and MHLivingNews.com.

Related Reports:

Realtor University ® “The Market for Manufactured Homes,” Research by Scholastica Cororaton, Certified Business Economist, Highlights

Winners and Losers, 5 Midwestern States, Manufactured Home Shipment Breakdown

 

Another $1.5 Billion From FEDs, Disaster Dollars Spell Opportunities, Factory Builder$ Take Note

‘Tip of Iceberg’ – Rick Rand; Marty Lavin, Communities have ‘No Confidence’ in Manufactured Housing Institute, New National Trade Group Announced

Repairing Your Manufactured or Modular Home – Facts, Myths and Clarity

December 17th, 2016 Comments off
ELSmanufacturedhomephotocreditSeekingAlpha-postedDailyBusinessNewsMHProNews580x434

Credit: Seeking Alpha.

Way back in the 1940s, when Arizona’s population really took off, manufactured and mobile [sic] homes helped provide housing for new residents, and today there are still many developments of manufactured housing scattered throughout the state,” writes Rosie Romero, an Arizona based homebuilding and remodeling expert, in the Green Valley News.

Romero makes a good point: manufactured or modular homes today are vastly different than those of the past. Older communities were created when building codes were different, in some instances with very narrow homes and small pads.

Today, it can be difficult to tell the difference between a manufactured or modular home and a site built home. Even so, old stereotypes still exist.

RepairingYourManufacturedorModularHomeFactsMythsandQualitycreditRosieOnTheHouse-postedtothedailybusinessnewsmhpronewsmhlivingnews

Credit: Rosie On The House.

Some repair people and contractors may shy away from working on modular,” said Romero.

 

 

 

Owners of these homes tell us they have trouble having pipes or electrical equipment fixed or windows or porches replaced. Some contractors say that’s because the plumbing and other systems in these houses can be very different.

Manufactured and modular homes must comply with the same building codes that other homes in the state follow,” said Neal T. Haney of NTH Property Management in Mesa, which has clients throughout the state.

Contractors and remodelers need to recognize that today’s manufactured and modular homes are built to the same standards and can easily be repaired. Sometimes the plumbing may be installed under the home in a slightly different way, but it’s very accessible.

Romero notes that while it may be hard to find parts for some older homes, there are websites that carry them online, in addition to stores throughout the state.

If a home is kept in good shape and has regular upgrades, owners can often resell their home to new owners,” said Haney. “But when an owner lets a home deteriorate, the cost of repairs becomes more than the value of the home itself.

RepairingYourManufacturedorModularHomeFactsMythsandQualitycreditMHLivingNews-postedtothedailybusinessnewsmhpronewsmhlivingnews

Credit: MHLivingNews.

MHProNews and MHLivingNews have provided extensive coverage around the subject of manufactured housing and how it compares – and often exceeds – the required standards when compared to site built homes, constructed faster and less expensive in a controlled environment.

The video and related story pictured above is linked here. ##

(Note: This writer recently visited a five-star manufactured home community. Once inside, I could tell no discernible difference between the manufactured home I was visiting and conventional site-built housing.)

(Image credits are as shown above.)

rcwilliams-writer75x75manufacturedhousingindustrymhpronews

RC Williams, for Daily Business News, MHProNews.

Submitted by RC Williams to the Daily Business News for MHProNews.

Clayton Homes Makes Key Acquisition

November 1st, 2016 Comments off
claytonhomesmakeskeyacquisitioncreditclaytonhomes-postedtothedailybusinessnewsmhpronewsmhlivingnews

Credit: Clayton Homes.

Clayton Homes, a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway, has acquired Lee’s Summit, Missouri-based Summit Custom Homes, according to the Kansas City Business Journal.

The acquisition was made by the company’s site-built division, Clayton Properties.

As Daily Business News readers are aware, Clayton Homes is the largest producer of manufactured homes in North America with over 1,000 Home Centers nationwide.

We are proud to join the Clayton team,” said Summit Custom Homes CEO Fred Delibero.

claytonhomesmakeskeyacquisitioncreditkcbusinessjournal1-postedtothedailybusinessnewsmhpronewsmhlivingnews

Summit Custom Homes CEO Fred Delibero. Credit: Kansas City Business Journals.

Both companies share a passion for building a best-in-class product, delivering an outstanding customer experience, fostering a family-focused rewarding workplace for our team members and a commitment to community involvement. Our partnership with Clayton will allow Summit to build upon an already successful track record as the leading new home builder in Kansas City and accelerate our growth both locally and regionally, all while maintaining our brand identity and existing team.

The acquisition of Summit Custom Homes is the third for Clayton over the last year.  The company reported $84.26 million in gross 2015 sales, with an average sale of $347,709 per home. Financial terms of the deal were not disclosed.

keithholdbrookscreditclayton-postedtothedailybusinessnewsmhpronewsmhlivingnews

Keith Holdbrooks. Credit: Clayton Homes.

We’re excited to welcome Summit’s 54 team members to the Clayton family,” said Keith Holdbrooks, president of the Clayton home building group. “Summit Custom Homes puts a large focus on extraordinary customer and team member experience. This is also a huge priority for Clayton, as we aim to provide an excellent experience in both the home buying journey and in building a strong culture among Clayton team members.

Acquiring companies like Summit is a key part of the Clayton Homes strategy as it ramps up its site-built operations, added Holdbrooks.

claytonhomesmakeskeyacquisitioncreditnewhomesjournalkc-postedtothedailybusinessnewsmhpronewsmhlivingnews

A Summit Custom Home. Credit: New Homes Journal Kansas City.

 

Clayton made its move into the site-built business in September of last year with the purchase of 81 lots in Atlanta and has sold 500 site-built homes since that time.

The Daily Business News recently covered Clayton Homes as they received their International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 registration, here.

Clayton is also part of one of the industry-connected stocks monitored each business day, here on the MH Industry’s leading professional news resource, the Daily Business News, on MHProNews.  For the most recent closing numbers on all MH industry-connected tracked stocks, please click here. ##

(Image credits are as shown above.)

rcwilliams-writer75x75manufacturedhousingindustrymhpronews

RC Williams, for Daily Business News, MHProNews.

Submitted by RC Williams to the Daily Business News for MHProNews.

Manufactured Homes Soar in Energy Efficiency, says University of Michigan

October 31st, 2014 Comments off

value-zonic-mapWhen the temperatures drop in wintertime, owners of Manufactured Homes reap a great benefit, lower heating bills. One of the top trends driving today’s housing market is the demand for energy-efficient homes that don’t sacrifice comfort for quality. Here’s what is trending for 2015 and beyond.

Because of the way manufactured homes are constructed, they usually have about 30 to 50 percent less air leakage than stick-built homes,” Bobby Campbell, director of value engineering for Champion Homes Inc., tells Marketwired and MHProNews. “The University of Michigan did a study a few years ago that tested stick-built homes against manufactured and modular homes and found that the manufactured homes were ‘tighter’ than stick-built homes.”

The Michigan Manufactured Housing Association (MMHA) explains that part of the reason modern manufactured homes may leak less air than conventional construction is because they are built to a special national code that site-built homes are not. Based on manufactured home construction and safety standards set by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, different regions of the country fall under thermal categories determined by their climates. Michigan is located in thermal Zone 3, which mandates the strictest heat leakage protection.

MMHA states that in addition to the national and state codes manufactured homes are required to meet, many homeowners are choosing energy efficient features to keep their homes better protected against the cold. Special insulation, high-performance windows and other materials are reducing overall energy costs and use fewer natural resources, which is a perk for many environmentally and budget conscious homeowners. ##

 (Photo credits: HUD Code data plate – Colorado.gov)

michael-francis-daily-business-news-mhpronews-com-(Submitted by Michael Francis to Daily Business News – MHProNews.)

 

NBC News Today Show report shows Manufactured Home did as well as Conventional On-site Construction in hurricane high winds test

July 23rd, 2014 Comments off

homes-vs-hurricane12-winds-test-credit=nbc-today-show-posted-mastheadblog-mhpronews-com-Regarding this previous portion of the test, IBHS indicated: “When one of these high wind-rated HUD-Code homes is installed on a permanent foundation, in most of the country, it would end up resisting wind storms better than surrounding site-built homes.”

So stated a MHI President and CEO, Richard “Dick” Jennison in a longer report to MHProNews. While part of the test was to show how superior a Wind Zone III home is to a standard HUD Code manufactured home in durability, Jennison said: the director of the IBHS (Julie Rochman, President) told the crowd how impressed she was at the performance of the Zone I home itself.”

MHProNews has been told that we will have additional information in the days ahead. More information on the specifics including stills and the video are found at this link, and a pre-broadcast report that provides more information and a related video is linked here. ##

(Image credit: NBC News Today Show)

New Addition—Mix of Manufactured, Modular and Site-Built Homes

January 29th, 2014 Comments off

Woodward County Commissioners in Woodward, Oklahoma have approved the final plat for a housing addition that will allow site-built as well as manufactured and modular homes. Riata Ranch was approved for a second time as commissioners felt the need to spell out covenants and restrictions in more detail. In assuring residents that their homes will retain value and the living experience will be pleasant, woodwardnews.net tells MHProNews a design and construction review board will oversee construction of the homes, taking into account the appearance, placement on the lot and number of stories for each home.

(Image credit: google.com)

Adkins Blasts Media for Anti-Manufactured Home Bias

August 30th, 2013 3 comments

In an editorial, MH aficionado Crystal Adkins said that in her opinion, journalists are a significant part of the image problem manufactured home owners and professionals face daily. “There are so many great benefits and advantages of manufactured homes.” Adkins said. She writes that manufactured home owners ought to be celebrated for living within their means, but instead are stigmatized by the media. As evidence that this isn’t a “conspiracy theory,” Adkins observes that on one week using Google alerts, she had “34 of those articles are about fires. There’s only 45 total articles.” She continued” “Out of the 45, only 6 were articles that were not negative. 2 of those weren’t even about real mobile homes and 1 was an ad on Craigslist. The craziest thing about all this is that Foremost Insurance Company shows that site-built homes are more than twice as likely to experience a fire than manufactured homes. According to this study, the number of home fires is 17 per 1,000 for site-built homes, while only eight per 1,000 for manufactured homes.” Adkins makes important points. As regular MHProNews readers know, we see it similarly and realize it is up to professionals to work daily to improve our image, celebrated daily on the new MHLivingNews.com website. Image building will also be one of the many topics that are part of the commentary in Florida Manufactured Housing Association Executive Director’s upcoming exclusive interview here, A Cup of Coffee with…Jim Ayotte. ##

(Image credit: Crystal Adkins/Mobile Home Living)

Avalon Says Modulars Stronger

April 3rd, 2012 Comments off

Avalon HomesAn item on the Avalon Homes blog points out the fact that modular homes contain thirty percent more wood than site-built homes. Of all the wood homes produced, the company says modular homes are the strongest. Because they have to be built for transportation, additional measures are taken to stablize the structures including gluing and screwing the floors. A traditionally built home, the company claims, could not withstand being transported by crane.

(Image Credit: Avalon Homes)

Death Toll Higher in Site-Built Homes

December 13th, 2011 Comments off

AnnistonStar reports in a piece written by the editorial board of the paper, that conventional wisdom maintains site-built homes of bricks and mortar withstand the effects of a tornado better than manufactured housing. However, the National Weather Service (NWS) has determined where 166 of the 248 Alabama victims died during the April 27, 2011 twister that ravaged the state. Sixty-five percent died in site-built-homes, but only 29 percent died in manufactured housing. Sherry Norris, executive director of the Alabama Manufactured Housing Association, says, “The stats are changing in our favor.” Jim Sloan of the Alabama Manufactured Housing Commission added, “Manufactured homes stood up at least as well as site-built homes.” The editorial says 15 percent of housing in Alabama is manufactured housing, the fourth highest percentage of all the states, and commends the MH industry for improving the construction of standards of manufactured homes. While noting there may be no place to hide during an EF-4 or EF-5 force tornado, the board insists that stronger structures provide the best protection.

(Photo credit: Birmingham News)

 

MH Field Hearing Yields HUD, MHI, Industry, and Resident Viewpoints

November 30th, 2011 Comments off

At the “State of the Manufactured Housing Industry” Congressional Field Hearings in Danville, Virginia, Nov. 29, members of the House Congressional Subcommittee on Housing, Insurance, and Community Opportunity heard from a variety of persons in the MH arena.

Henry Czauski, Acting Deputy Administrator for the Office of Manufactured Housing programs, noted the affordability aspect of Manufactured Housing (MH) to moderate and low-income families. He stressed the importance of federal regulations in ensuring MH is built to standards that enhance the safety and security of the structure, and the involvement of the Manufactured Housing Consensus Committee (MHCC) in that process. Noting that the “certification” fees HUD collects on each MH section has declined with the decrease in sales, he said Congress has appropriated funding to supplement these fees in three of the last four years.

Kevin Clayton, president and CEO of Clayton Homes, and secretary of the Executive Committee for the Manufactured Housing Institute (MHI), testified that 72 percent of all new homes sold in 2010 under $125,000 were manufactured homes. While noting that the industry as a whole provided 75,000 full-time jobs in 2010, 200,000 jobs have been lost as the industry has declined. Clayton said provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act will disparately impact manufactured home lending, that the SAFE ACT, now under the auspices of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) needs clarification in its implementation, and that HUD’s outdated building codes and guidance on preemption have left the industry vulnerable to state and local regulators.

Tyler Craddock, of the Virginia Manufactured and Modular Housing Association, said manufactured housing comprises 5.6% of all the housing in Virginia, but in many rural areas where construction labor is not readily available, 15-20% of the housing is MH. Craddock said factory-built housing sales are moving more in the direction of modular in his area, and blamed the lack of affordable financing for consumers wanting to purchase manufactured housing.

Adam Rust, research director of the Community Reinvestment Association of North Carolina, noting the difficulty in obtaining financing for MH, said a person applying for a manufactured home loan is three times more likely to be turned down than someone applying for a site-built home loan. Rust said GSEs could be restructured to make financing more available to persons buying manufactured homes, because interest rates are too high and consumer protection is too low. He also suggested making funds available for community groups to buy MHCs.

Stanley Rush, of MHD Empire Service Corporation, says SAFE Act implementation is hurting MH salespeople who are only helping consumers with paperwork, not with lending decisions. With so many sources of lending drying up because regulators are encouraging lenders to stay away from MH loans, the industry is being further crippled, Rush stated.

J. Scott Yates, president of Yates Homes of Pittsylvania County in Virginia, testified his company has dropped to five employees from 19, and from selling 180 homes a year to only 30. Yates said he is now selling modular homes to keep his company alive because the codes are the same for site-built homes and financing is easier to obtain. He said the big loser is the American consumer of more modest means.

MH Virginia resident Carla Burr said she could only afford her $113,000 home because she had sold her condo and had the cash. Her other option was to finance the home at 10 percent, despite a good credit rating, a figure she says prevents many people from being able to afford MH. She said not only does the government need to promote manufactured housing through the myriad of programs already existing, but it also needs to protect community residents who sometimes are at the mercy of unscrupulous community owners.

MHARR provided written testimony for the committee.

(Editor’s Note: The full written portion of the statements from each of the above are available for your download and reading here below).

Mr. Henry S. Czauski, Acting Deputy Administrator for Manufactured Housing Program, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

Mr. Kevin Clayton, President and Chief Executive Officer, Clayton Homes, Secretary for the Executive Committee of the Manufactured Housing Institute (MHI)

Mr. Tyler Craddock, Executive Director, Virginia Manufactured and Modular Housing Association

Mr. Stan Rush, Account Representative, Haylor, Freyer and Coon, Inc.

Mr. J. Scott Yates, President, Yates Homes

Mr. Adam Rust, Research Director, Community Reinvestment Association of North Carolina

Ms. Carla Burr, Manufactured Housing Resident

Written Testimony submitted by Danny Ghorbani for the Manufactured Housing Association for Regulatory Reform (MHARR)


(Graphic credit: Wikipedia  U.S. House of Representatives)